The Yazoo Land Fraud 1789-1796

The Defrauding of Land from the Muschogee Nuwaupian Creek Nation

The Muschogee Mississippian Territories in the Southern Appalachian

By 1787 the colonial expansion of these Georgians began to move to take control of the Muschogee nation territorial lands, Georgia claiming our territorial lands to the north, which is now known as the border of Tennessee[1] and North Carolina[2] set at the 35th parallel, all of these lands were claimed by the Georgians, but never fully accepted by the indigenous nation whose domain or entitlement still hold today the Muschogee Yamassee nation, neither was it accepted by Spain[3] whom laid claim to the lands west of the Mississippi river and exclusive jurisdiction of the ports of the Mississippi river from the South[4].The Georgians referred to our territory initially as the Mississippian territories[5], named after the ancient Mississippian culture, a significant ethnically homogeneous tribe of culturally, and linguistically distinct people dwelling on our nations territory predominately to the west. These tribes are included as an aggregate of distinct tribal members inhabiting the western part of our nation today,[6]though scattered and misplaced, surviving brutal years of attempted removal, nature and law inevitably preserved our right to exist.       We are the Muschogee Nuwaupian nation of various tribes of indigenous aborigine natives with many sister tribes spanning across our empire.

Attention should be paid to the tribe known as the Alabamans[7] other tribal remnants of our nation are Seminole, Shoshoni and Yamassee of which our pure blooded indigenous sovereign president of the United Nuwaupian Dr. Malachi Z. K. York, stems.         There are Shoshone and Yamassee as well as various mixtures of Africans who assimilated with our nation in order to survive the colonial slave trading.[8] These sister tribes categorized by various colonial settlers observing the ethnological activities of the Muschogee nation, appropriated names by use of adjectives and verbs of such tribes in order to identify, separate and to destroy our nations tribal identities[9]. The territory of our nation divided by various rivers and creeks where our towns were located by our populations being predominately near water sources, the colonial settlers in misnomer our nations tribes Creeks, Seminole, Choctaw[10], Chickasaw[11] as they sought to seek to control a significant portion of lands east of the Mississippian tribes as well, hence the name of what the U.S. now refers to as its 20th and 22nd state of its union, Alabama and Mississippi the resulting colonial states compacted to the U.S. These are our territories illegally attached through the ‘Organic Acts’[12] of the United States. The United States congress claimed territories for its union by whatever means it could manifest itself, even if territories were fraudulently procured from corrupt, duplicitous, nefarious and precarious acts of so-called authorized officials of this said State of Georgia, which we will observe these acts stem from a composites systematic acts of International wrongs resulting in modern day legal effects.

The Land Maps of the Yazoo Companies Frauded 65 Million Acres of Nawaupian Territories to buyers world over illegally without proper title

This gargantuan conspiracy laid the ground for the modern day genocidal and ethnocidal legal effects of the attempted eradication of the entire nation a beginning blueprint in its model form. Additional usurpations carried out by these settlers migrating from foreign lands[13] moved with intent to create three additional colonial governmentally controlled territories out of Muschogee nations. Indigenous ‘peoples’ territorial lands in order to attach them to the union. A union of agreeable colonies in regards to the unanimous ideology that slavery would be the economical machine of this new corporation of states using the engine of enslaved indigenous nationals as the backbone of this new world power and authorized by its ‘Constitution.[14]’ Could the peoples of foreign sovereigns legally disrupt the structures and system of a nations dominion by new settling immigrants voting as a ‘people’[15] with so-called authority to proclaim and exercise ‘states rights[16] over the jurisdiction of the territory a so-called ‘discovered’ nation? No, not even with its true intent hidden in its unions pro-slavery nation building agenda, utilizing forced labor in order to expand this newly created colonial ruling empire. These settlers proclaiming so-called states rights included the claims of jurisdiction over the entire person of our nation. The exercising of the rights of self-determination and decolonization by the subjected peoples of the Muschogee territory to free themselves of this tyranny has always been met with the excessive use of force by the United States in all of our efforts of liberation.[17]

This southeastern territory is by true original ownership, entitled and rightfully belongs to the true aborigine ‘peoples’. Their descendants have retained its sovereignty for centuries, and have organized our State of Nuwaupia with proper legal order with such a degree of civility[6] that it is in this fact our peoples has manifested its intent to settle this dispute, de facto, presented within the governing principles of the international society that dictates the friendly relationships that we seek with our United Nations[18]. With these facts, and ‘situation’ that is upon us, our nation has never the less maintained respect for the outside world, principles of int. law and fellow nations. The rights under international law that the United Nuwaupian nation holds is not contingent upon the acceptance of such right by individual others, we do not exercise our rights as a state under international law because we are recognized[19] but rather we are recognized because we are a state exercising our rights. It is known that our nation has ultimately come to power in such a manner that it is even accepted by what the United States government considers the principles of international law.[20]

In the southeastern territories settlers of the Georgia colony also claimed lands to the 31st parallel today marking the line between Alabama and Florida. The 1783 Treaty of Paris[21] formally ending the American Revolution, alleged a cession to Spain who proclaimed entitlement of the indigenous lands south of the Muschogee Yamassee Nation Empire; the Spanish explorers called it ‘La Floridia’, becoming the 27th territorial unit of the United States. The Spanish, based on earlier British claims, averred a vast area of Muschogee nation territory as well, east of the Mississippi River in particular, up to the mouth of the Yazoo river, this dispute between territorial entitlement of the areas of the Muschogee nation between Georgia and Spain became the center of an international dispute and controversy. These foreign sovereigns were entangled in clash of true ownership of foreign lands claimed by charters issued to trustees that were little more than feudal land grants faintly premised upon the idea that Christianity and civilization would be brought to the indigenous native nations[22].

Thus the plans of the Georgia colonial government propping itself upon Muschogee territory as an unofficial legal entity on February 5, 1777, enforcing its 63-article constitution[23] through the threat of local and federal military force, had no such right in international law[24] as a state that came into existence by illegal means with the intent of destroying others.[25] Georgia’s settlers belligerent occupation had the effects of violations of the principles of self-determination[26], as the right is protected by international law today, and in its application of law in that time; ‘the Law of Nations’ the principle of ‘inter-temporal law’ is in application here in regarding the forced acquisition of territory and dominion thereof[27].

The drafting of this States Constitution by officials unauthorized by the ‘colonial’ peoples, calling for their government to be organized by executing legislative and judiciary boundaries on its own ‘ex propio motu’, knew it had to acquire territory from our nation in order to satisfy the land hungry immigrants that sought to exploit, destroy and displace millions of indigenous dark-skinned aborigine ethnologically distinct peoples[28] that ruled these lands from time memorial, since our ancestors walked and sailed[29] from the land of what is now called Africa, Afaf-Rayay Khaa, with the first signs of landing by Africans in Allendale County, S.C. 51,000 years ago.[30]

The Mississippi Organic Acts took possession of Indigenous Muschogee Nuwaupian nation Territory in 1798.

By 1787 the colonial expansion of these Georgians began to move to take control of the Muschogee nation territorial lands, Georgia claiming our territorial lands to the north, which is now known as the border of Tennessee[31] and North Carolina[32] set at the 35th parallel, all of these lands were claimed by the Georgians, but never fully accepted by the indigenous nation whose domain or entitlement still hold today the Muschogee Yamassee nation, neither was it accepted by Spain[33] whom laid claim to the lands west of the Mississippi river and exclusive jurisdiction of the ports of the Mississippi river from the South[4].The Georgians referred to our territory initially as the Mississippian territories[35],

nation divided by various rivers and creeks where our towns were located by our populations being predominately near water sources, the colonial settlers in misnomer our nations tribes Creeks, Seminole, Choctaw[36], Chickasaw[37] as they sought to seek to control a significant portion of lands east of the Mississippian tribes as well, hence the name of what the U.S. now refers to as its 20th and 22nd state of its union, Alabama and Mississippi the resulting colonial states compacted to the U.S. These are our territories illegally attached through the ‘Organic Acts’[38] of the United States. The United States congress claimed territories for its union by whatever means it could manifest itself, even if territories we8re fraudulently procured from corrupt, duplicitous, nefarious and precarious acts of so-called authorized officials of this said State of Georgia, which we will observe these acts stem from a composites systematic acts of International wrongs resulting in modern day legal effects.

The Yazoo Land Fraud

The burning of the Yazoo Act, which resulted in the Yazoo land fraud of 1795, took place on the grounds of the capitol building in Louisville.

The legislative bodies of Georgia in 1789 and the second successful attempt in 1795 of the granting 35 million of acres of our territory for less than cent an acre to four companies[39] was controlled by northern spectators and Georgia’s officials and its legislative body[40] moving to make profits off of inflated sales of land to speculators who in turn would make billions of dollars off of the forced labor of Native Nuwaupian Americans and kidnapped Africans upon settlement by endeavoring in the transatlantic trade by slave traders who exported Muschogee natives and imported stolen Africans to agriculturally abundant and resourcefully uncultivated rich soil.

This fraud from a clear legal view from our nations perspective and its direct effect upon us then, and its effects upon us today, is the purpose of this sectioned entitled ‘Yazoo Land Fraud’ as for the clarity of fact and true entitlement holding to these territories by the United Nuwaupian Nation, Iustus titulus.[41] Georgia legislature in both instances took claims of entitlement by the taking of bribes, [42] to create the most grandiose speculative schemes and fraudulent concealment ever concocted serving several purposes. In order to concoct a scheme of such magnitude of land sales, true entitlement of said territories had to illegally be disposed of. No such authority has ever existed on earth as to be able to dispose [43]of the territory of the Muskogee (Creek) Nation nor has there been any diminishment in the authority of our sovereign rights over the indigenous territory in concern, there is a presumption of treaties of land cessions procured through fraud as well, that were allegedly signed and agreed upon by our nation through corrupt imposters[44] outside the consent of our central government as these agents misrepresented State conductors [45] of our nation, further investigations have revealed that the venal acts of treaty procuration through fraud has been the systematic approach of illegal land acquisition from our nation by the United States for over one hundred twenty years[46].

The United States congress pressing for possession of the Muskogee nations territory exacerbated the threat of Georgia’s assertion of rights over our territory as well. Colonial speculators from Georgia, Virginia, and South Carolina were well aware of the Georgia’s scheming and of the corruption. On or around November of 1789 [47] in an argument advanced by the one of the companies, the South Carolina Yazoo Company[48] appearing before the senate committee Alexander Moultrie emphasized that the companies not only would pay the state ‘a valuable Consideration’ for her claims to the said territory but also would undertake the task of the attempted extinguishment of our tribes true entitlement.

The rights of original entitlement as the successor state have in combination become peripheral rights exercised by our nation inclusive of all rights pertaining to indigenous peoples[49]. The initial acts of fraud by the State of Georgia in conspiracy with the United States to extinguish our nations duties and rights, stems from the U.S. Congresses rejection of Georgia’s land cession of 1788, the putative State of Georgia was confronted with several alternatives in satisfying its greed and insatiable appetite towards its illegal expansion onto Muscogee territory all unjustifiable, one in particular is its attempt to extinguish Native American sovereignty by the sales of territory outside the authority of the state of Georgia[50] to companies[51] which presented petitions to an appointed committee of each house for consideration of the purchase of such territories with many legislative members as shareholders of these companies. State senators of Georgia John Jones of Burke, and James McNeil of Richmond opposed initially of the Yazoo sale in the upper house, later also attempt to purchase Muschogee Creek nation territory petitioned on the 12th of December 1789, claiming that if Legislature would grant them a ‘sufficient’ quantity of land in the west, they could bring to Georgia “at least forty thousand Souls from Ireland, France, Switzerland, and from of our own Sister States’ this new group wanted to pay five thousand “Specie dollars” or the equivalent in either tobacco and rice or Savannah and Augustan merchandise[52].

Alexander Moultrie of the South Carolina Company pointed out that the prospective purchasers were prepared to pay a total of “200,000 dollars for 15 million acres, which he observed was 60,000 more than congress had offered for 60 million in 1788.[53] December 7, 1789 by a vote of 5-3 the Yazoo Bill passed the Senate of Georgia, on December 16, 1789 the bill passed the lower house by a margin of 16-8, and on Dec. 21 of 1789 Georgia legislature for an average price of less that one cent per acre sold more than 25 million acres of Muschogee Nation land to three of the companies, 10 million acres went to the South Carolina company for $66,964, 11 million acres went to the Virginia company for $93,741 between the Tombigbee and Mississippi rivers, north of the line 33°0. Tennessee Company purchased 4 million acres for $46,875.

This territory of the Muskogee Nation, the dominion of ‘Nuwaup-u Taqwaam’ was known to be vaster than most European Kingdoms.[54] The companies who purchased these lands were given the task of shouldering the responsibility of the attempted extinguishment of the Muschogee nations natural dominion and control. Though there were strong opposition of the first Yazoo sale in the lower house and protesters claimed that citizens of Georgia were denied ‘an opportunity of becoming purchaser upon equal terms with those of other States,’ this issue was ultimately settled in the second successful attempt of the Yazoo Act named ‘Supplementary Act[55]’ of January 5, 1795, where millions of acres were set allotted for the unauthorized settlement of Georgia citizens upon territory illegally granted to the companies purchasing the territory. Federal district Judge Nathaniel Pendleton of Savannah on 4, June 1790 sent what was considered a ‘dull, but true representation of the facts’ to the General Assembly convening in a special session, believing that Muskogee (Creek Nation) territory should be laid out as Georgia’s own and ultimately admitted to the union as a State,[56] this scheme ultimately did come to fruition by the 1802 land cession compact by Georgia to the United States ‘cum onere’[57]. There were several reasons why a special session of the General Assembly convened in June 1790, perhaps because of the opposition of the first Yazoo sale on part of the federal government, or the result of circulation of Nathaniel Pendleton’s letter or possibly a combination of these forces, whatever it may have been, the General Assembly adopted a course of action that eventually doomed the first Yazoo purchase.

The critical question in records which sealed the fate of the first Yazoo sale, was of two folds one was a concern amongst the General Assembly the method of payment to be received by the State Georgia for the illegally disposing of this territory, according to the resolution of January 11, 1788, the treasurer had been directed to receive either Georgia paper money or audited certificates in payment for all debts due to the State, with the prohibition of receiving other than gold or silver for payment, all three companies were indecisive as well as the General Assembly, as to the method or mode of payment in the transaction, that legislation were neither ‘clear’ nor ‘positive’, nor ‘particular’ regarding that mode.[58] While the Yazoo companies argued with state officials about the terms of purchase, other plans were under way in attempts to secure Georgia claims by collusions and corruption to additional Muskogee Nation territories between the Oconee and the Chattahoochee, prime hunting, and agriculturally rich lands of the Muskogee tribe, the Yamassee[59], who dwelled within but as the ruling tribal military of the ‘Creeks’ nation. These great damning features of the Yazoo crime presented itself in total view of violations of the adopted methods of ‘Sovereign Nation’ principle and policies in regards this nation of Native Americans. The principles were so dear to peace, righteousness and humanity in their intercourse and of such pervading and perpetual importance with universal enforcement, that George Washington as president at the time being alert and fully awake to the Yazoo case and to the lawlessness, issued his proclamation strongly denouncing and forbidding the all intrusion into the ‘Muscogee Creek Nation Territory’ under the pretenses or claims of whatever, by the Yazoo purchasers. In bringing the military as well as the civil arm to bear to defeat of any contemplated settlement, he happily succeeded in breaking up and dissipating the whole project without drawing a ‘sword’ or the dropping of blood [60]. Attributing to the nullification of the Yazoo purchase of 1790.

Paving the way for the nullification of the Yazoo purchase of 1790 Governor Edward Telfair had observed that on the 11th of January 1788 a resolution had directed the treasurer to receive either Georgia paper money or audited certificates in payment for all debts, rested his case upon the observation of a resolution led the Georgia to the scheming upon the office of the treasurer of the State of Georgia John Meals by an agent for the Tennessee Company Thomas Carr. Thomas Carr informing Alexander Moultrie of the South Carolina Company that John Meals had agreed to resign for a fee of one thousand pounds for his office, opening the vacant position to appoint a friend who would receive the papers and receipt from them as dollars.[61] This plan also fell to the wayside as the last attempts to meet the terms of the sale under the Yazoo Act a year later by Treasurer John Meals still in office, refused to accept the proffered payments. The Yazoo act itself made no clear distinction as to clarify the mode of payment of this fraudulent sale either, illegal from its conception. The conspirators[62] of this Yazoo sale scheme with that refusal by the State Treasurer Meals to accept proffered payments, the corrupt officials, were forced to concoct additional collusive schemes to obtain illegal acquisition of Muskogee (Creek Nation) territory as that marked the end of the first Yazoo sale.

[1] This attached territorial unit of the Muschogee nations sister named the State of ‘is Tennessee’ associated with the Cherokee town of ‘Tanase’ (in what is now Monroe County) and the Tanase River (the Little Tennessee), in southeastern Tennessee. The Muschogee, word Nuwaupu-yee ‘Tanase’ has been given the fanciful derivations and meaning, “winding river” and “river of the great bend”. The modern spelling of “Tennessee” was noted as early as 1754 and was applied by 1793 to that section of tramontane North Carolina claimed as the territory of the United States of America South of the River Ohio.

[2] North Carolina receive its name when it separated from South Carolina in 1729, North Carolina was named by the immigrant settlers in honor of a foreign King called Charles I of England. The name Charles, in Latin, is ‘Carolus’. This was modified slightly and became Carolina, naming these territories after their sovereign in preparation of eradication of the indigenous nations north of the Muschogee nations territorial boundaries. William S. Powell, North Carolina Through Four Centuries, (Aug 1, 1989)

[3] Marley, David (1998), Wars of the Americas: a chronology of armed conflict in the New World, 1492 to the present, Santa Barbara, USA: ABC-CLIO, ISBN 978-0-87436-837-6

[4] ibid

[5] Mississippian culture, the last major prehistoric cultural development in North America, lasting from about 700 to the time of the arrival of the first European explorers. It spread over a great area of the Southeast and the mid-continent, in the river valleys of what are now the states of Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Arkansas, Missouri, Kentucky, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio, with scattered extensions northward into Wisconsin and Minnesota and westward into the Great Plains. The culture was based on intensive cultivation of corn (maize), beans, squash, and other crops, which resulted in large concentrations of population in towns along riverine bottomlands, Mississippian cultural groups were (broadly speaking) were independent chiefdoms, which were primarily connected, by organized trade systems and warfare, they established a large town surrounded by smaller communities, and a large cemetery now known as Dickson Mounds. Mississippian people built Cahokia, one of the largest Native American cities in North America-larger, in fact, than many European cities at the time. Cahokia was a political and religious center of Mississippian life. The magnificence of this center is still visible today in the form of monumental earthworks that dot the Mississippi River flood plain at Cahokia. The largest mound at the site, Monks Mound, is 305 m (1,000 ft.) long and nearly 244 m (800 ft.) wide at its base, and it stands slightly more than 30 m (100 ft.) tall. It is larger at its base than any of the Egyptian pyramids. The descendants of the Mississippian became the Seminoles, Chickasaw, Choctaws, the Muschogee nation. These are a few of the 2,379 Mississippian sites documented so far. Adam King, ‘Mississippian Period: Overview’ New Georgia Encyclopedia, 2002, accessed 15 Nov 2009; “Southeastern Prehistory: Mississippian and Late Prehistoric Period”. Drexel A., Peterson, ed. “South Appalachian Mississippian: A Definition and Introduction” Thirty First Southeastern Archaeological conference. Atlanta, Ga. pp.8-9

[6] ibid

[7] Derivatives of the names of tribal family of Alabamers, Alabamer, Alabamu, ‘Tribal Name of the Americas’, Patricia Roberts Clark (McFarland & Company, Inc.) this tribe varied in name in the Muscogee nation depending on the spoken dialect, these members are an ethnic group of our nationals. These tribes spoke the mixed Yamassic or Muskogean, Setictic, known as Nuwaupu-yee, spoken by todays Nuwaupians, the following list of our sister tribes of the Nuwaupian Nation. The successor of Muschogee Councils, as a government retaining sovereignty we have continued vested interest in the remnants of these tribal mixtures who are our nationals: Yamassee, Creek, Seminole, Shushuni, Washitaw, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Occone, Yuchi, Apalchee, Apalachiola, Chatot, Chiaha, Ghuale, Hitchiti, Kasihata, Okmulgee, Osochi, Sawoki, Shawnee, Tamathli, Timicua. Several mixtures still existing as citizens of the State of Nuwaupia.

[8] Encyclopedia of Indian Removal Volume 1, A-Z: African-Descended People and Removal, (Daniel Littlefield, Jr., and James W. Parins, Editors), ‘The removal of the southern tribes created a slave trade in the West where none existed. The numbers of African-descended people who removed with the Choctaws, Muschogees (Creeks), Florida Indians, Chickasaws, and Cherokees to the West is uncertain…’ ‘However, slave claims followed the Creeks and Seminole to the West, calling attention to the large population of African-descended people in the Indian Territory…

[9] Indian Removal Act 1830 Andrew Jackson, from Tennessee, was a forceful proponent of Muschogee nation removal. In 1814 he commanded the U.S. military forces that defeated a faction of the Muschogee nation. In their defeat, the Muschogee nation was fraud out of lost 22 million acres of territorial domain. The U.S. acquired more land through fraud in 1818 spurred in part by the motivation to punish the warring Seminole tribes of the Muschogee nation for having Africans harboring their slaves. Jackson was instrumental in procuring lands in fraudulent treaties, nine out of eleven treaties that allegedly divested the Muschogee nation of their eastern their territory in exchange for lands in the west. The tribes wanted to negotiate fairly with government in the hopes of retaining some of their land while protecting themselves from white harassment. As a result of the treaties, the United States gained control over three-quarters of Muschogee territory, becoming known as Georgia, Tennessee, Mississippi, Kentucky and North Carolina. This was a period of involuntary Native American migration, however, and only a small number of Muschogee nation actually moved to the new lands; Dawes Act Forced assimilation policies (coercions, land use, marriage, parents displacements) Federal Fathers and Mothers, A Social History of the United States Indian Service, Cathleen D. Cahill; Bureau of Indian Affairs, Donald L. Fixico (2012)

[10] During the Trusteeship (1732-52), the overwhelming majority of Georgia immigrants—more than 3,000 in number—arrived from Europe. Around two-thirds of these pioneers were funded by the Trustees, who offered them a passage across the Atlantic, provisions for one year, tools, and a tract of land in return for their labor. Initially the settlers tended to congregate according to their ethnic origins. Highland Scots settled a Celtic outpost at Darien on the southern frontier. Lutheran Salzburgers swiftly organized a productive and dutiful township at Ebenezer to the north. English folk, many of them Londoners, dominated Savannah and its surrounding villages, along with a large number of Rhineland Germans and a few Lowland Scots. In and around these regional settlements were smaller enclaves of immigrants, including Spanish-speaking Sephardic Jews, French-speaking Swiss, pious Moravians, Irish convicts, and a handful of Piedmont Italians and Russians, As a result, Georgia’s colonial population spiraled from an estimated 3,500 in 1752 to around 29,000 in 1773.Marsh, Ben. “Colonial Immigration.” New Georgia Encyclopedia. 16 December 2013. Web. 10 April 2014.

[11] Slavery and slaves are referred to as ‘other persons’, ‘such persons’ in the text of the United States Constitution, delegates throughout the debate discussed blacks, negroes or, non-African slaves (e.g. Muschogee Native American) but avoided the term in the final text to make the ‘Constitution’ more palatable to the North as opposed to the South colonies, Alfred W. Blumrosen & Ruth G. Blumrosen, Slave Nation: How Slavery United The Colonies & Sparked the American Revolution (2005)

[12]U.S. CONST. Preamble, We the People’ The ‘People’ here are European immigrants from various religious groups and countries, the Dutch came from the New Netherland, the Swedes and Finns come from New Sweden, the English Quakers of Pennsylvania, and the English Puritans of New England as well as English settlers of Jamestown, and of course the worthy-poor of Georgia. All located in distinct region in the upper New England colonies, Middle Colonies, the Southern colonies Chesapeake Bay colonies (Upper South) and the Lower south, Cooke, ed. North America in Colonial Times (1998). These people authorized the signing of the ‘Constitution’ in order to unite the states of mind of the various colonies, all to agree unanimously on a government who could control, subjugate and colonized nations and Africans inside the institution of slavery. e.g. the Muschogee nation of the southeastern area.

[13] Pres. Dr. Malachi Z. K. York (June 26th 1945-still living) of the United Nuwaupian nation kidnapped, tortured and great degradation of an internationally protected person, refer to § VII; Dr. Martin Luther King (January 15 1929-April 4 1968) born in what is now called Ga. today a national of Muschogee territory was the face and voice of the civil rights movement. Martin would serve as a martyr for the movement after he was killed in Memphis in 1968, King would be shot while outside his hotel room in Memphis; Harry and Harriett Moore were a husband and wife team of civil rights activists and teachers who founded the NAACP in Brevard County, Florida. In 1951, the couple’s house was bombed and both of them were murdered. 55 years after the bombing, the state of Florida concluded an investigation into the bombing and found that three, since deceased members of the Ku Klu Klan were responsible; Marcus Garvey (August 17th 1887-June 10th 1940) in Jamaica, Marcus Garvey was an orator for the Black Nationalism and Pan-Africanism movements, to which end he founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League. Garvey advanced a Pan-African philosophy, which inspired a global mass movement, known as Garveyism. Garveyism would eventually inspire others, from the Nation of Islam to the Rastafari movement. The Greater Liberia Act of 1939 was an attempt to repatriate the remnants of enslaved Africans and Muschogee nation nationals, to the free country of Liberia which was stopped by Congress Marcus Garvey was incarcerated for allegedly committing mail fraud, claiming misrepresentation of the purchase of the “Black Star Line’ ship. Sentenced to five years and deported via New Orleans to Jamaica, refer, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcus_Garvey; List of other notable liberators that have either been assassinated, incarcerated or suppressed by the United States in the process of liberation for the Muschogee nation and enslaved Africans: James Presley Baall, Peter H. Clark (March 29, 1829 – June 21, 1925), Samuel Cornish, Ellen (1826–1891) and William Craft (September 25, 1824 – January 29, 1900), Thomas Dalton (1794–1883), Martin Delany (1812–1885), Frederick Douglass (1818-1895), orator, ex-slave, James Forten (September 2, 1766 – March 4, 1842) , Henry Highland Garnet (December 23, 1815 – February 13, 1882), Frances Harper (September 24, 1825 – February 22, 1911), Lewis Hayden (December 2, 1811 – April 7, 1889), Thomas James (abolitionist) , Charles Henry Langston (1817–1892), John Mercer Langston (1827 – February 4, 1900), Terry Loguen, John Parker (1827 – February 4, 1900), Susan Paul (1809–1841), social activist and author, James W.C. Pennington (1807–1870), Gabriel Prosser (1776 – October 10, 1800), Robert Purvis (August 4, 1810 – April 15, 1898), Charles Lenox Remond (1 February 1810 – 22 December 1873), David Ruggles (March 15, 1810 – December 16, 1849), John Brown Russwurm (1799–1851), Benjamin “Pap” Singleton (1809–1900), James McCune Smith (April 18, 1813 – November 17, 1865), Lee T. Smith ( a confederate liberator who gave the most help to Harriet Tubman, Lucy Stanton (born Lucy Stanton; 16 Oct. 1831-18 Feb. 1910), Austin Steward (1793-Feb. 15, 1869), Maria W. Stewart (1803-Feb. 6, 1880) , William Still (October 7, 1821-July 14 1902), Sojourner Truth (1797?-1883) ex-slave, Harriet Tubman (1820-1913) ex-slave, writer, Nat Turner (October 2, 1800- November 11 1831) , Denmark Vesey (1767-July, 1822), David Walker (September 28, 1796- June 28 1830), William Whipper (February 22nd 1804- March 9, 1876) , Sheila White (born 1988), Theodore S. Wright (1797-1847), Jermain W. Logue(n) this is a succinct list of participants of advocates of liberation, abolitionist, and Native American freedom fighters. Muschogee nation advocates of liberation and African American freedom riders has for decades sought what the United Nuwaupian Nation has accomplished, independence and freedom as a sovereign state, with the rights to governing ourselves.

[14] Hyde, International Law (2nd edn), 1, 23; cf 127-9; cited favorably by a Department of State Legal Advisory in relation to Indonesia, Whiteman, Digest 223-4.

[15] Article 73 of the UN Charter

[16] Restatement 2nd, s 107. Comment a states that ‘basic principles of fairness and the need for an orderly system of international relations require that the rights which international law accords to states not be dependent on recognition’;

[17] C.C.A.N.Y 1940 ‘A right of action belonging to one sovereign will pass to its successor, if the successor has come into power in a manner acceptable to what our government considers international law.’ Land Oberoesterreich v Gude, 109 F.2d 635, certiorari denied 61 S.Ct. 30, 311 U.S. 670, 85 L.Ed. 431.

[18] The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain on one side and the colonial settlers and their allies on the other side whom later become known as Americans.

[19] The Rights of War and Peace (n2) 120

[20] Georgia’s first attempt at constitutional government was initiated in April 1776 by the Provincial Congress called by the Georgia Trustees in response to a series of mass meetings held throughout the colony. This document provided a framework for the transition from colony to state. Soon after Georgia moved toward independence by accepting the Declaration of Independence. Its first constitutional convention was organized and completed in February 1777 as well as executed without having been submitted to voters for ratification; this constitution remained in effect for twelve years. It vested most governmental authority in a state legislative body, incorporated the separation of powers doctrine, and included a number of basic rights only afforded to Caucasian settlers and immigrants. A History of Georgia, Kenneth Coleman, Second Edition, pg. 37-56)

[21] Law of Nations, Book II, Chapter I: Nations in Relations to Other States § 7 But not by Force “… nations are free and independent, Those ambitious Europeans who attacked the American nations, and subjected them, and cause them to be instructed in the true religion, — those usurpers, I say, grounded themselves on a pretext equally unjust and ridiculous’

[22] Law of Nations, Book II Nations in Relations to Other States, Chapter I: Of the Common Duties of a Nation towards other, or of the Offices of Humanity between Nations §18 No Nation ought to Injure Others, No nation ought to injure others, No nation therefore ought to commit any actions tending to impair the perfection of other nations, and that of their condition, or to impede their progress,– in other words, to injure them. And since the perfection of a nation consists in her aptitude the end of civil society…” § Violation of territory,We should not only refrain for usurping the territory of others; we should also respect it, and abstain form every act contrary to the rights of the sovereign: for a foreign nation can claim no right in it

[23] Colonial Declaration, para 2: ‘all peoples have the right to self-determination’

[24] Law of Nations, Book II Nations in Relations to Other States, Chapter VII: Effects of Domain, between Nations § 90. It is not allowable to drive a nation out of a country which it Inhabits; ‘Whoever agrees that robbery is a crime, and that we are not allowed to take forcible possession of our neighbors property, will acknowledge, without any other proof, that no nation has a right to expel another people who are from the country they inhabit, in order to settle in it herself.’

[25] Refer to § II of this document

[26] Through the African tides and currents and before the invention of sails “Africans” were able to sail the waters by learning the tides and current of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. With two currents running from Africa into America, known as the ‘Guinea Current’ or ‘North Equatorial Currents’ flowing from propitious region indeed along the coast of Senegal and Gambia, striking the American Coast from a broad band from the Guineas to the Antilles, eastward along the guinea coast, with frequent cycles out to sea where it joins the south equatorial current.

[27] A South Carolina University Professor by the name of Dr. Albert Goodyear says, “…Humans lived along the east bank of the Savannah river 50,000 years ago.” The 51,700 year old site was found less than thirty miles from the Atlantic Ocean, the evidence of the ancient Africans migration comes in multiple forms: skulls and skeleton; footprints in lava; campsites; genetic M174 and D haploid groups; linguistic; paintings; carvings; architecture; Egyptian writing; artifacts and structures. This data exposes the false premise that the first American came from Asia once and for all. Toner, M. (2003), “Earliest Americans may predate Ice Age.” The Atlanta Journal Constitution, Retrieved from March 20, 2010 from www.allendale-expedition.net/pressreleases/AJC18earlyman.pdf

[28] The word ‘Choctaw’ is named after a legendary chief named ‘Chatah’ apart of the Muschogee nation, not the name of a peoples per say, another appellation given to these tribes in contact with

colonist.

[29] Likewise the word Chickasaw was not the name of the peoples nor tribe concerned it stemmed from the name ‘Chikasha’ another legendary chief of the tribe located in the area; similarly appellations were given to these tribes in contact with these settlers documenting the interactions, Jesse Burt & Bob Ferguson (1973). “The Removal”. Indians of the Southeast: Then and Now. Abingdon Press, Nashville and New York. pp. 170–173.

[30] An Organic Act, is an Act of the United States Congress that unilaterally claimed a nations indigenous territory, by forcedly removing the indigenous and or assimilating the nationals into the fabric of the United State or an agency, e.g. ‘Mississippi Territory’ the Organic Act of April 7, 1798; 1State, 549. Refer to §V subsection, The Organic Act.

[31] This discussion is based upon the documents submitted to the United States House of Representatives in Dec. 1803 by the South Carolina and Virginia companies and upon the reports of congressional committees, all which has been reprinted in, e.g. ASP: PL 1:165-79.

[32] The Yamassee tribes of the Muscogee nation central tribal location and spiritual center of religious ceremonies and territorial markings is located in the area today known as Eatonton, Ga., this area marked by indigenous effigies of the “Bird Clan” built by the Yamassee tribe some 945 years ago was the most sought after land in all of the southwest by European hungry land grabbing settlers. Prior to the Georgia land lotteries of 1805 and the fraudulent treaty of fort Wilkinson on June 16, 1802, this area was the center of our spirituality, Robert White acquired illegal title to the these lands in the Georgia Land lottery of 1805, and sold it to Kinchen Little in 1808. Taking possession of indigenous religious sites of Rock Eagle mound and Rock Hawk mounds, outside the consent of our nation. U.N. Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Article 28,1. Indigenous Peoples have the right to redress, by means that can include restitution or, when this is not possible, just, fair and equitable compensation, for the lands, territories and resources which they have traditionally owned or otherwise occupied or used, and which have been confiscated, taken, occupied, used or damaged without their free, prior, and informed consent. Refer to

[33] Absalom Harrison old catalog Chappell, ‘Miscellanies of Georgia, historical, biographical, descriptive, etc.’ entered into the Act of Congress, in the year 1874. Pg. 64-69

[34] Carr Collection, UGA

[35] Supra footnote 167

[36] The South Carolina Company led by William Clay Snipes, Isaac Huger, and Alexander Moultrie, brother of Governor William Moultrie, this group commission Native American fighter, John Holder, in adopting the name South Carolina Yazoo Company being a descendant of the Bourbon County traced through the lineage of John Wood, who claimed titles of two million acres of lands of the Choctaw in 1786. John Woods disposed of it to an unprincipled speculator known as Thomas Washington who was hung in South Carolina in 1792. In Nov. of 1789 petitioned the Georgians legislature to confirm its speculative activities. Lachlan McIntosh labeled an associate of the South Carolina Company engineered his appointment to the committee to bring in a bill empowering the State to cede “certain Western Territory belonging to this State. (Lachlan McIntosh is related to William McIntosh the self appointed chief who fraudulently acted in misrepresentation of the our nations governmental council, to procure treaty agreements outside of authority see section The duplicity of fraud, corruption and coercion of representatives of a State treaty, the military, economic and political coercion by the putative State of Georgia upon the United Nuwaupian Nation applying the threat of force, inter alia, for the procuration of the validity of treatise, their nullification and vitiation. ) See, Thomas P. Abernathy, The South in the New Nation, 1789-1819 in A History of the South, Vol. 4, eds. Wendell Holmes Stephenson and E. Merton Coulter (Baton Rouge, 1961), pp. 74-101; Charles H. Haskins, “The Yazoo Land Companies,” Papers of the American Historical Association 4(October 1891) 61-103; Arthur P. Whitaker, “documents: The South Carolina Yazoo Company,” MVHRThe Yazoo Land Fraud”. The Tennessee Yazoo Company led by Zechariah Cox, who managed to secure appointment as assistant clerk of Georgia. John Sevier and Thomas Carr and William Blount who cheered on. Thomas P. Abernathy, The New South in the New Nation, 1789-1819 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1961), 76-77; House Journal, 25 November 1789, GDAH. The Virginia Yazoo Company fraudsters include Patrick Henry appointing John B. Scott to represent the company in Augusta, in the memorial of Patrick Henry, David Rose, Abraham B. Venable, John B. Scott, William Cowan, John, and Joseph Martin, John Watts and Frances Watkins, on behalf of themselves and others Virginia Yazoo Company presented a petition to the Georgia Assembly on “Your memorialist…humbly pray that this honorable House will be pleased to take up the subject of the purchase made by the Virginia Yazoo….” The Georgia Yazoo Company included, John Jones of Burke, and James McNeal of Richmond, both of whom had consistently opposed the Yazoo sale in the upper house, in their petitions dated Dec. 2, 1789 they claimed if the legislature would grant them a “sufficient” quantity of land in the West, they could bring into the Muskogee territory forty-thousand souls from Ireland, France, Switzerland and other states, claiming also that their proposals were more attractive than their competitors who offered 207, 508 dollars payable perhaps in public securities, then worth very little. Refer to House Journal, 12 December 1789, GDAH.

[37] A few of the fraudsters were listed a William Call, Wade Hampton of South Carolina, Patrick Henry’s Virginia Yazoo Company (still hoping to resurrect the earlier grant, appointing John B. Scott to represent them in Augusta). John Wereat (a spokesman before the general assembly) Albert Gallatin, Alexander James Dallas, Jared Ingersoll.

[38] Latin for “Just title.” A just or valid basis for a claim of ownership…

[40] Examples of the list of acts of bribery in conspiracy with U.S. and the land hungry settlers of Georgia which in performance, are of two fold of treaty violations, one in particularly making note to the duplicitousness of bribery and conspiracy involved was the two Indian Springs treatise of 1821 and 1825, between self-appointed chief who was 3/4th Scottish and born mestizo William McIntosh bloodline of the McIntosh Clan the highlanders of Scotland, taking position in misrepresentation of the Creek Muskogee nation for the purpose of unilateral fraudulent land cessions, of which on Jan. 8 1821 McIntosh took a bribe of a thousand acres reserved for McIntosh’s payment of bribery in the treaty of Indian Springs, with an additional one square mile off of the west bank of the Ocmulgee River in what is now known as Butts county, created out of Monroe and Henry counties on Dec. 24, 1821, counties created out of fraudulently land cessions, for the advancement of colonialism. McIntosh also committed fraud in the 1825 Treaty of Indian Springs, exacerbating the treaty fraud committed four years later, ceding land having no authority to negotiate land cessions. A.S.P. 2 Indian affairs 582-83; H.R. Rep. No. 98, 19th Cong., 2d Sess. 129-30 (1827), Farris W. Cadle, Georgia Land Surveying and Law, 1991 University of Georgia Press; Refer to § IV of this document.

[41] Vattel, Law of Nations, Book II: Nations in Relation to Other States, Ch. VII. Effects of the Domain, between Nations’. §General effect of Domain: ‘…for if I have full right to dispose of a thing as I please, it thence follows that others have no right to it at all, since, if they had any, I could not freely dispose of it…general domain of the nation is full and absolute, since there exist no authority upon earth by which it can be limited: it therefore excludes all right on the part of foreigners. And as the right of nations should be respected by all others, none can form any pretensions to the country which belongs to that nation, nor ought to dispose of it, without her consent…’

[42] Benjamin Hawkins was appointed by the President of the United States as agent to the Muskogee ‘Creek Nation’ in 1796 as the successor to Seagrove, Hawkins job was to keep the peace while silently attempting to control the Muskogee Creek nations governments national council by adoption of the creation of legislative districts, appointing delegates encouraging an executive committee to influence U.S. encouragement of the adoption of a so-called ‘civilized’ white American style of life.

[43] Law of Nations, Book II: Nations in Relations to Other States, Chapter XII, § Nullity of Treatise which are Pernicious to the State, ‘…treaty pernicious to the state is null, and not at all obligatory, as no conductor of a nation has the power to enter into engagements to do such things as capable of destroying the state’

[44] Refer to § IV of this document

[45] Thomas P. Abernathy, The South in the New Nation, 1789-1819 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1961), 76-77; House Journal, 25 November 1789, GDAH.

[46] The first South Carolina Company consisted of the notorious Savannah speculator Thomas Washington, Alexander Moultrie, Isaac Huger and William Clay Snipes.

[47] Supra 168

[48] The Rescinding Act, An ‘Act declaring null and void a certain usurped act, passed by the last Legislature of this State, at Augusta on the seventh day of January, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-five, under the pretended title… 3rd ‘…the Legislature was not vested with the power to transfer the sovereignty and jurisdiction of the State over the territory attempted to be disposed of, by opening a door for sale to foreign powers…’

[49] The Virginia Company was directed by Patrick Henry and Joseph Martin, the Tennessee Company chief organizer, Zachariah Cox managed to secure appointment as assistant clerk of Georgia House of Representatives on November 25, 1789. He was also one of Gunn’s partners in the Georgia Company. The Georgia Mississippi Company composed of primarily of Augusta, Ga. speculators. Scott formed the fourth company the Upper Mississippi Company involved in the purchase, after he had withdrawn the bid of the Virginia Yazoo Company. Restricting it largess to a few upcountry Georgians, including George Walton the signer of the Declaration of Independence a representative of Ga. (American State Papers: Public Lands 1:201)

[50] House Journal, 12 December 1789, GDAH

[51] James Habersham to James Habersham, 25 November 1789, family Correspondence of the Habersham family of Georgia, 1787-1892, Mss. Div., Library of Congress Washington, D.C.

[52] American State Papers, Public Lands 125 (Supplementary Act of Jan. 7, 1802)

[53] An act supplementary to an act (Yazoo Act), entitled “An act for appropriating a part of the unlocated territory of this State for the payment of the late State troops, and for other purposes therein mentioned, declaring the right of this State to the unappropriated territory thereof, for the protection and support of the frontiers of this State, and for other purposes” And be it further enacted, ‘That the said Georgia Company shall reserve for and to the citizens of Georgia, exclusively, the quantity of one million of acres of their purchase, in the following manner, to wit: at the expiration of three months from and the passing of this act’ by January 3, 1795 the supplementary act had passed both houses of legislature and signed by Governor Matthews on Jan. 5.

[54] According to Judge Pendleton, the area in question was a complete mystery to the settlers as it was the domain of the Muschogee Creek Nation, European settlers had little knowledge of this proclaimed territory, as Spain wanted control of the navigation of the Mississippi River and also contended over control. (Refer to Pendleton to Stephens, 4 June 1790, William Stephens Papers, GHS.) in complete violation of the international norms of that time in respects to foreign nations possessions, both the United States and Georgia’s contention led to criminal conduct of the grossest magnitude.

[55] ‘With burden’ (1) With an existing charge, easement, restriction, or other burden. Guide to Latin in International Law, Aaron X. Fellmeth, Maurice Horwitz , (2009)

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